- 18.03.2020

Ghost authorship examples

ghost authorship examplesScientific authorship is an important element of any paper. simply list all contributors as authors, some choose to include an honorary or ghost author, An example would be omitting the name of an employee of a pharmaceutical company. [21] One form of ghost authorship is suppression of the The last example is the most sinister one, which is of gravest.

This article has been cited by other articles in Ghost authorship examples. Summary Points Ghostwriting of medical journal articles raises serious ethical and legal concerns, bearing on the integrity of medical research and scientific evidence used in legal disputes.

Ghost authorship examples

Medical journals, academic institutions, and professional disciplinary bodies have thus far failed to ghost authorship examples article source sanctions. We argue that a guest author's claim for credit of an article written by someone else constitutes legal fraud, and may give rise to claims that could be pursued in a class action based on the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act RICO.

This claim also appropriately reflects the negative impact of ghostwriting on the legal ghost authorship examples.

Go to: Introduction There are persistent concerns about ghost authorship examples influence of the pharmaceutical and device industries on the medical literature, and particularly on the reporting of clinical trials, which can include the distortion of the true evidence base of medical interventions and ghost authorship examples of the clinical benefit of a drug used to treat patients [1].

Ghostwriting can also occur when an academic research group uses a professional writer to draft an article based on data ghost authorship examples by the group.

When the research group retains control of the data and the final analysis, however, there is less of a concern about possible bias in the reporting of the results, and the appropriate remedy in that case is to report explicitly the role and contribution of the medical writer in the article.


However, these recommendations have not yet been widely embraced by the academic institutions, medical journals, and medical licensing organizations that would ghost authorship examples to have the most at stake in curbing this practice. Here, we discuss some of the reasons for ghost authorship examples lack of response and suggest that the law may offer a solution, given these other institutions' failure to impose sanctions.

Ghost authorship examples

Go to: Concerns about Guest Authorship Guest authorship is ghost authorship examples disturbing violation of academic integrity standards, which form the basis of scientific reliability [15]. The scientific base guiding clinical practice and decision-making is to a large ghost authorship examples formed by the peer-reviewed medical ghost authorship examples.

Indeed, pharmaceutical sponsors borrow the names of academic experts precisely because of the value and prestige attached to the presumed integrity and independence of academic researchers.

Ghost authorship examples

Industry-controlled publications that are prepared by ghostwriters or that use guest authors may distort perceptions about current knowledge concerning a product's safety and effectiveness.

For legal purposes, publication in peer-reviewed journals is one of the criteria that help to make a scientific theory or method admissible as evidence, according to the standards set out by the United States Supreme Court in Daubert v.

Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals [17]. By facilitating publication in coinbase account disable journals, guest authorship creates the impression that standards of academic independence and integrity have been satisfied even when they have not, and makes it more likely that the research will be treated as legally admissible even when this is inappropriate.

Publications on which academics appear as guest authors also give credibility to these authors in the legal setting. These articles are sometimes used to establish an expert ghost authorship examples authority, even when the ghost authorship examples of check more info out research in the article is the very issue under dispute.

As a result, the treatment of the guest author as a legal expert may prevent scrutiny of the practice that is being challenged for ghost authorship examples to serious harm.

Numerous studies have shown that industry-sponsored clinical trials are often biased in favor of the sponsor, sometimes in ways that can be detected only with access to the original data and study ghost authorship examples [8][9][18] — [22]. Often, the manipulations that influence the outcome are not visible to the guest author, whose role in the study or article may be minimal and may fall short of authorship criteria that would require involvement in the development and conduct of the study, and final approval go here the paper.

Go to: Curbing Ghostwriting Practices The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ICMJEin establishing leading standards for biomedical publications, has sought to curb inappropriate and unethical authorship practices by requiring that journals ask detailed questions about what exactly each author has contributed to an article [23].

Editors and editors' associations have a significant interest in preserving the integrity of their journals, and some have detailed sanctions.

Some journals, such as PLoS Medicine, have called for bans on future submissions by authors who act as guests, formal retraction if unacknowledged ghostwriting is discovered after publication, and reporting of authors' misconduct to institutions [26].

This may have an impact on academics concerned about their status and future ghost authorship examples options.

However, it is unclear whether journals can or even want to monitor the practice adequately.

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Some editors have stated that their journals are not responsible for policing authorship practices [27]. And because medical journals may gain significant revenue from lucrative advertisement contracts and from selling reprints including of ghostwritten ghost authorship examples industry may use for off-label promotion [28]it is unlikely that medical journals will effectively seek to prevent these practices.

Commentators have also called ghost authorship examples academic sanction [12][29]. But while several established academics have been associated with ghostwritten publications, no public sanctions appear to have been enacted for their behaviour.

Various reasons explain an institutional ghost authorship examples to take this route: the guest's role in the ghostwritten publications may be unclear; academic institutions may be challenged by their dual commitments to safeguard academic integrity ghost authorship examples also protecting their employees against unjust accusation; and universities in particular tend to approach authorship questions with understandable prudence, considering the serious potential impact on academic careers.

Academic institutions may also be reluctant to act because ghostwriting cases often involve successful academics who hold positions of power due to their prestige, academic status, publication record, and grant support.

Moreover, institutions may decide not to act because the practices involved ghost authorship examples ghost and guest authorship may not be far ghost authorship examples from other common publication practices in academic medicine where laboratory directors, departmental chairs, and supervisors often claim authorship on publications ghost authorship examples link those institutional roles rather than by standard authorship criteria [2].

Ghost authorship examples

Some clinician-investigators even insist on co-authorship when providing access to patients or samples. Pursuing sanctions for ghostwritten articles may open a Pandora's box, leading to scrutiny of other authorship practices in academia, or to anxiety-laden efforts to justify those practices [30].

Professional organizations, ghost authorship examples as State Medical Boards in the US, Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons in Canada, and the General Medical Council in the United Kingdom, could also intervene when evidence of guest authorship by licensed heath care professionals is uncovered, particularly if it involves outright misrepresentation of data [1].

When a physician falsely claims to have analyzed and adequately reported safety and effectiveness data, this can be considered 30 buy account league level violation of professional integrity standards and of click commitment ghost authorship examples patients and good health care; physicians should know that check this out may impair clinical care and endanger patients, and they should be sanctioned accordingly [1].

However, these professional organizations have so far failed to issue serious sanctions ghost authorship examples the rare cases when an organization has looked ghost authorship examples allegations of authorship violations [31]. The reasons for the lack of action may include their general inertia ghost authorship examples reacting to new professional challenges and the fact that they may be more preoccupied with other, more traditional violations of professional standards of care, violations of conflicts of interest, and financial fraud.

There ghost authorship examples also been much criticism of these organizations for ghost authorship examples perceived tendency to protect the profession [32][33].

Finally, for the same reasons as the academic institutions, professional organizations may be uncomfortable about confronting problems of guest authorship and ghostwriting that damage their members.

In light of the lack read more institutional responses to curb the practices of ghostwriting and guest authorship and in light of the significance of these practices for the legal system, we suggest that a firm legal response is appropriate.

Go to: Legal Ghost authorship examples for Ghostwriting An important starting point for a legal response involves the ICMJE uniform guidelines [23] and the authorship forms used by many medical journals based on those guidelines.

The theories outlined below apply specifically to journals that require authors to complete and sign such a form as a condition of ghost authorship examples.

Ghost authorship examples

The guidelines were designed to ensure that authorship credit is reserved to those who have played a significant role in the study's design, conduct, and analysis, ghost authorship examples writing of ghost authorship examples article. The guidelines set out three criteria, and a person seeking credit as an author must satisfy all three: Substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; Drafting ghost authorship examples article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and Final approval of the version to be published [23].

Medical journals typically require all authors to confirm in writing that they have satisfied these criteria.

Ghost authorship examples

The authorship requirements are known not only to named authors but ghost authorship examples to ghost authorship examples.

The warranty of authorship is an important factor in ascertaining an article's integrity and quality. To ghost authorship examples this, we need only ask how readers would react to an article prefaced with a https://magazinshow.site/account/league-of-legends-account-buy.html that a lead author has refused to sign or has repudiated the authorship warranty, and now wishes to clarify the contributions of an industry-based medical writer.

Such a statement would significantly undermine the article's credibility [34].

Ghost authorship examples

Congratulate, forex ghost authorship examples telegram apologise Authorship as Fraud The above thought experiment, involving a guest author who admits to playing that role, shows that a false ghost authorship examples of authorship is an example of fraud.

Fraud occurs when a person makes a knowingly false representation in order to acquire something of value, and harm occurs as a result [35]. In its basic structure, a claim of civil fraud on this basis would take the same form in many countries [36]. Ghost authorship examples, such a claim is more likely to yield significant damages if numerous plaintiffs can join together to sue in a class action, which may be done more easily in the US than in many other jurisdictions.

ghost authorship examples

Ghost authorship examples

We therefore draw on US law in this section. Here, the guest's false claim—asserted in the authorship warranty—induces the journal to publish the article, and misleads readers about ghost authorship examples scholarly care and scrutiny lavished on the research.

The splinterlands hijack gives the guest credit for an article that may ghost authorship examples as a valuable credential, by impressing academic merit committees, grant agencies, conference organizers, and others including judges and juries if the guest later acts as an expert witness [37].

Such recognition may carry reputational and financial value. Arguably, each repetition of the false warranty implicitly asserted on a CV presented to any of these audiences is an independent fraud.

The journal loses the opportunity to publish an article ghost authorship examples would legitimately have satisfied the authorship requirements.

Ghost authorship examples

The ghost authorship examples lose the opportunity to read a legitimate article, and may be ghost authorship examples to believe, rely on, and use data from a fraudulent article. If the journal became aware that the lead author was a mere guest, and that the journal's authorship requirements had not been satisfied, the journal would not publish the article.

The characterization of ghost authorship examples authorship as fraud has received limited but important recognition in suits involving the False Claims Act FCAwhich ghost authorship examples liability on those who cause fraudulent claims to be presented to the US government [38]. For example, in Strom ex rel.

Scios, Inc. These activities included sponsoring ghostwritten articles purporting to validate off-label use of Natrecor nesiritide and, through press releases and the promotional efforts of sales representatives, recklessly encouraging doctors to prescribe ghost authorship examples drug for uses that were not medically accepted.

Without deciding the merits, the court held that the allegations, if proved, would be sufficient to state a claim under the FCA. In Strom, it appears that the unwarranted claims made in the ghostwritten articles, rather than their fraudulent authorship, helped to support the allegations of fraud.

This approach has great potential, but it will not always be easy to prove the falsity of ghostwritten research. As Strom shows, the fraud underlying these articles cannot be attributed solely to the guest author, who after all has responded to an invitation.

Pharmaceutical companies and medical communications agencies are ghost authorship examples aware of the journals' publication requirements.

Soliciting and facilitating fraud may amount to conspiracy, and may incur liability on the same grounds as the fraud itself [41]. The predicate acts for RICO liability include mail and wire fraud, which occur when a fraudulent statement is sent through the mail or by email.

If a guest lends her name to two or more articles for https://magazinshow.site/account/holochain-twitter.html same product, she may satisfy the RICO criteria in several different ways, because the purposes, results, participants, and methods of commission are the same.

Civil RICO liability allows plaintiffs ghost authorship examples seek treble damages from those violating the statute [41][42].

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Because a journal's readers are all harmed by the fraud, they may sue the guest in a civil RICO class action [43][44]. One of ghost authorship examples harms involves the value ghost authorship examples ghost authorship examples journal subscription. The subscription price represents the value of a year's worth of articles that conform to the guidelines.

Readers would not willingly pay for the fraudulent articles, as shown by the hypothetical example of a guest author who disclaims responsibility for authorship.

Whether or not they read https://magazinshow.site/account/best-website-to-buy-a-fortnite-account.html article in question, its publication deprives them of the opportunity to read an ghost authorship examples read article the journal's requirements, and thus diminishes the value of their subscription.

The harm may be measured by reducing the subscription price in proportion to the space ghost authorship examples to the ghostwritten article. The individual loss is small, but the aggregate loss to all subscribers may be significant—particularly if the cost is trebled under RICO.

In addition, some readers access articles on a pay-per-view basis.

The gift of paper authorship

These readers, too, will assume that the article meets the journal's requirements, and they would also be unlikely to pay if they first saw a disclaimer of authorship responsibility. These purchasers might constitute a distinct subclass in a RICO class action, with damages based on the cost of the click to see more. To prevail, the plaintiffs would not have to prove individually that ghost authorship examples relied on the guest's fraudulent claim.

Inthe US Supreme Court held that when plaintiffs allege fraud under RICO, they are not required to show that they relied on the defendant's assertions, so long as they were harmed because someone else relied on the fraud such as the journal ghost authorship examples [45].

Once a plaintiff establishes that the article was ghostwritten, and shows that he or she value steam checker account for a subscription or a download, she has sufficiently established fraud, reliance, and harm for the whole class of Ghost authorship examples plaintiffs.

Why should this approach be directed against guest ghost authorship examples, rather than the others who are complicit in the same fraud?

Ghost authorship examples

Ghost authorship examples fraud could be added to the claims raised against pharmaceutical companies in negligence suits, but the damages would be low, as against those already available in such cases. But the combination of monetary sanctions and reputational harm might deter academics, and might also deter the medical communications agencies that design these studies and seek impressive names for the byline.

How do ghosts provide writing samples? - The Ghost Writing Blog

Here is a case where the threat of liability—and the uncertainties and distractions that it brings—may be sufficient to discourage those who are not normally sued for harmful drugs, but who help to legitimate the studies that publicize these products.

This definition would apply to the use of ghostwritten articles when they ghost authorship examples cited by lawyers for those who helped to create the articles or by expert witnesses for those parties.

Expert witness testimony comes into court through the agency of lawyers, who are officers of the court.

When a pharmaceutical company helps to produce ghostwritten articles and its ghost authorship examples cite ghost authorship examples in court, the lawyers are, at the very least, reckless about the falsehood and they have a duty to source the truth.

Remedies ghost authorship examples fraud on the court may include a default judgment for the opposing party when the fraud is revealed during a proceedingnullification of a judgment or a legal entitlement that was ghost authorship examples with ghost authorship examples aid of the fraud, and disbarment of counsel who facilitated the fraud [48].

For a more concrete sense uber ghost authorship examples accounts the doctrine, consider Hazel-Atlas Glass v.

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