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Ryzhkov, G. Ryzhkova, published in Forest Science Staking 2019 ov Vol. Ryzhkova V. Dynamics of the spatial structure and composition of oak forests over the past 50 years is analyzed.

Patterns and special features of the tree and shrub distribution in the open spaces fallows, virgin steppes, and pastures are presented.

Ravine and watershed oak forests, mostly coppice ones, are predominant here. It is a common fact that various types of digital cartographic materials presented in a certain system of staking 2019 ov or projection form the basis of geographic information systems GIS.

During the pre-GIS times s to sthere were only hard copies of the maps of staking staking 2019 ov ov reserve. Mapping of the vegetation cover, including woody vegetation, has been used to study the natural complexes of CCR since the middle of the past century.

A significant part of staking 2019 ov materials of that period was represented by geobotanical and forest management maps.

The results of cartographic studies of that time are covered in a series of publications Kartometricheskie issledovanija鈥, ; Kashkarova, Rubajlo, Utehin, ; Neshataev, ; Neshataev, Novikova, Uhacheva, ; Petrova, ; Ryzhkov, Sobakinskih, ; Utehin,etc.

Cartographic work mainly involved continuous planimetric eye staking 2019 ov, creating a stationing grid on the ground and writing down the results on paper.

Plant associations or their complexes and types, i. Large territorial units of the CCR sites and ecosites usually were the objects of research. The staking 2019 ov location of the Central Chernozem Reserve, which lies btc price prediction 2019 the central forest-steppe zone, determines the direct contact between forest and steppe vegetation, so many researchers have been paying great attention to the relationship between them.

A staking 2019 ov cycle staking 2019 ov mapping on the reserve territory included studying the distribution of tree and shrub species in strictly protected areas both virgin and former fallow lands.

The survey of andresulted in preparation of location maps of the bases of tree trunks and contours of shrub thickets Krasnitskij, ; Krasnitskij, Soshnin,and the mapping staking 2019 ov 鈥 staking 2019 ov in a detailed map of projective covers of trees and shrubs both single and thickets-forming.

Dynamics of the distribution of woody vegetation on Dalneye Pole fallow was analyzed in a series of papers Ryzhkov, Ryzhkova, a,b,c; Ryzhkova, Ryzhkov, It is exactly the mapping of tree and shrub distribution across the steppe that underlies the testing of modern survey methods, which is the subject of this article.

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Forest management https://magazinshow.site/2019/bitcoin-price-chart-june-2019.html were carried out 5 times staking 2019 ov within the territory of the reserve.

Afforestation plans were made in hard copies, staking 2019 ov it was only in that both hard copies and electronic click here were created maps were digitized at the federal state institution Voronezhlesproject, initially in WinGIS software with subsequent conversion to MapInfo in Cartesian coordinates.

Multi-temporal series of geobotanical and forest management maps this web page reflect the general trends in vegetation dynamics.

However, taking a plant association or a forest type as a mapping unit suggests significant errors in the accuracy of rendering their contours, which is staking 2019 ov due to subjective factors.

In our opinion, the most detailed and complete reflection of the dynamics of woody vegetation is provided by regular cartographic works performed at stationary research sites, or SRSs permanent test plots PTPsprofiles, transects, registration sites, individual restricted access facilities, etc.

In this case, real individual trees and shrubs or their biogroups thickets are taken as mapping units.

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Obviously, no linking natural objects and geographical coordinates, which are used in modern GIS, were not even staking 2019 ov question during the pre-GIS period. The cartographic materials compiled from surveys on stationary sites are the most accurate and objective in terms of reflecting the statics and dynamics of vegetation cover, forming the staking 2019 ov for a comprehensive study, analysis and modelling of the development of natural ecosystems.

Stationary cartographic staking 2019 ov are even more important when repeated, which makes it possible to track local and global dynamic staking 2019 ov of the vegetation Ryzhkov, b.

The method of stationary studies of woody vegetation in nature reserves has been published before Ryzhkov, b. Stationary methods of studying the vegetation cover of staking 2019 ov reserve have been being practiced on its territory since the end of the World War II.

Zozulin mapped these PTPs repeatedly in and analyzed the dynamics of changes in staking 2019 ov vegetation over a five-year period Zozulin, Kusmarceva, Special symbols designating the bases of tree trunks and clusters of shrubs were approximately applied on the diagrams according to relief features.

In the following years, cartographic research staking 2019 ov the SRSs of the reserve was conducted by G. ZozulinS. Levickij, F.

Staking 2019 ov. Krasnitskijand others. The full withdrawal 2019 of these works was given by Ryzhkov, b.

A number staking 2019 ov forest PTPs was laid in by A. Krasnitskij and in and during subsequent forest management continue reading, in the oak forests of the CCR, where forest-taxation studies are carried out from time to time, in particular complete enumerations and mapping of stands, undergrowth, understorey and grass cover.

Modern methods of the vegetation mapping have been implemented in the reserve. These methods make use of new satellite positioning devices, unmanned aerial vehicles UAVsand desktop and mobile geo-information systems.

The objective of this paper is to give a review staking 2019 ov cartographic research results in the CCR and demonstrate the advantages of using modern GIS software and hardware to study forest-steppe ecosystems. The tasks of this paper are: to https://magazinshow.site/2019/bitcoin-prediction-december-2019.html the dynamics of forest vegetation based on the materials of periodic mapping at the PTPs, to tradeogre xhv the state of stands of the main species, and to present the staking 2019 ov of studying tree and shrub distribution in the steppe.

Several methodological approaches are distinguished, depending staking 2019 ov the types of source data intended for GIS.

Next, the methods and results of mapping woody vegetation at SRSs will be discussed.

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Layout plans of trunk bases and projections of tree crowns by species and tiers also staking 2019 ov standing dead link and windthrow were drawn at a scale of on grid paper in the field for each staking 2019 ov plot.

It is the horizontal structure of forest communities on 14 SRSs, namely, the projective cover of stands, undergrowth and understorey based on staking 2019 ov data from 鈥 and Ryzhkov, Ryzhkova, a which was studied in greatest detail.

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This method was fully polished when mapping complex watershed oak forests and waterlogged birch forests of the Zorinsky site of the CCR Zolotuhin, Ryzhkov, Filatova, ; Ryzhkov, Ryzhkova, In 鈥, those paper plans were scanned and their fragments were stitched into single bitmaps. Next, it would technically make sense to register the resulting staking 2019 ov directly in the GIS and vectorization directly in association with terrain.

However, no desktop GIS version was available in the reserve during mapping and creating the electronic map archive.

Therefore, digitization was made in AutoCAD. As the licensed version of the MapInfo Professional GIS appeared in the reserve, it became necessary to link the AutoCAD-vector layers of crown projections of the stands to the bases of tree trunks, as well as the projective coverings of undergrowth visit web page understorey of forest PTPs.

The standard MapInfo tool allows registration of vector layers only by three reference points, which is clearly not enough for accurate transformation.

Therefore, we more info the loose MiTransformer module, which, based on affine or projective transformations, allows registering vector read article of several tables at once using an unlimited number of reference points which provides high quality of terrain association.

To staking 2019 ov create a vector layer of basal more info of tree trunks at forest PTPs, the function of creation circle with the given centre and given diameter in the MapCAD module was used, and the values of the latter were taken from the numeric field of the table database Ryzhkov, Trunk centres were marked on top of the bitmap by manual application of a symbol inside each circle.

Basal areas are easily adjusted by constructing centroids to generate circles with given diameters. Correct transformation of the borders of crown projection polygons requires preliminary generalization thinning of their nodes using appropriate GIS software MapInfo or ArcGIS.

The visit web page approach, which is currently used, is better in terms of methods and time. Further, in the GIS environment, the objects were vectorized manually on the screen with terrain association in the universal transverse Mercator projection zone 37, Northern hemisphere WGS 84 [EPSG] and subsequent analytical calculations are carried out Ryzhkov, Ryzhkova, b.

The described method based on digitization of paper diagrams allows using map materials obtained in a conditional usually Cartesian coordinate system in GIS.

The next two methods are based on data from field surveys of objects with satellite positioning devices of different classes, which makes possible their export to GIS based on the obtained geographical coordinates.

Total survey using personal navigation devices and GIS. These devices can record geographical coordinates of staking 2019 ov and tracks and store them 2019 xrp predictions for non-volatile memory.

The above-named mobile equipment makes it possible to navigate through bitmaps. The resulting point and line objects were exported to GIS using specialized software. The staking 2019 ov processing boundary smoothing, converting polylines to polygons, etc.

The main disadvantages of this method are its inability to save the necessary attributes with graphics, and low accuracy of recording coordinates 3鈥5 m and more. Starting fromdetailed cartographic studies have been carried out at the CCR including application of modern hardware and software, i.

This equipment was tested when mapping the distribution of trees and shrubs on the Second unmowed section of the Streletskaya steppe which is the largest and most representative part staking 2019 ov the Streletsky site with an area of This object has been completely protected since No total ground mapping was arranged here previously.

The high-resolution pictures, obtained from drones, were used to create orthophotomaps of the terrain and refine controversial contours in hardly accessible areas of steppe shrub thickets.

Data was processed, analysed, and visualized in MapInfo Professional v. Mobile application: TerraSync Centimeter Edition v.

High accuracy of location detection by the Trimble GeoExplorer GeoXH CE allowed using a virtual stationing grid for mapping instead of a real one, the creation of which required considerable effort during conventional mapping of vegetation cover in previous periods.

The main and additional stationing grids with unique numbering of squares were uploaded into the device in SHP format for subsequent staking-out.

A unique feature of the GPS PathFinder Office desktop software is the ability to develop a mobile GIS structure as a field data collection form with staking 2019 ov specific list of fields, which was used during the woody vegetation survey. Two types of data were saved during mapping: point trunk bases and polygonal crown projections ones.

At the same time attribute information based on these data was collected. Field work staking 2019 ov mapping of woody vegetation with a complete enumeration of trees and shrubs all specimens starting from the immature age state were taken into account, and juvenile plants found were also recorded.

Trimble GeoExplorer GeoXH determined geographical coordinates and altitude of the trunk bases of single trees and shrubs above sea level, in order to consistently form an array of waypoints suitable for building point-based thematic maps in GIS.

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Isolated contours thickets of vegetation were mapped by traversing their perimeter with the above device. The staking 2019 ov was configured to record only high-quality objects, the planimetric coordinate error of which did not exceed the set value in most cases, it is usually 2鈥3 cm when the sky please click for source open and staking 2019 ov cm under tree crowns and in dense thickets of shrubs.

Simultaneously with the mapping, detailed attribute information was collected for each object. For a complete enumeration in the field, the following information was entered in a special form: site, ecosite, author sdate, time, polygon or point number, species, origin, trunk perimeter or diameter at breast height cmtrunk height mage, condition, diseases, life form, fructification, notes for entering additional information and photos only selected objects were photographed.

Parallel to ground mapping of woody vegetation, aerial photography of the section was source out with DJI Inspire-1 drones.

The resulting pictures were combined staking 2019 ov single images that were used to create orthophotomaps of the unmowed area. Some staking 2019 ov, including images of tree and shrub crowns in hardly accessible areas impassable thorny thicketswere recorded separately in GIS and used as an underlay for manual digitizing of the crown contours on the screen.

They were used to create and thematic maps on pages. A detailed method of GIS mapping of woody vegetation using modern hardware and software was published by Ryzhkov et al.

Let us mention, that the direct raspberry pi mining 2019 of high-precision geodetic devices for mapping woody vegetation under the forest canopy lacks efficiency since there are significant obstacles for satellite signals.

Even when receiving differential corrections in RTK mode, the accuracy of determining coordinates in this case usually click here not exceed 1. Staking 2019 ov addition, stable mobile or radio connection is required.

Therefore, conventional mapping turns next big cryptocurrency 2019 reddit useful the creation of a stationing grid on the ground or geodetic devices of another class, e.

The staff of the reserve has certain experience in operating such equipment. It makes sense to show the patterns of weather changes in the studied area prior to making results review.

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